Lithography; The Must-know Great Industrial Miracle

To be self-reliant and work hard, these eight characters must be imprinted in the blood like a gene for the Chinese.

Starting today, we will steadily cultivate our own scientific and technological talents, follow our own path of technological development, completely discard the idea that it is better to buy, and completely abandon all illusions!

After more than 40 years of reform and opening up, the idea of ​​foreign slaves that it is better to buy than to rent has hurt us. Our technological innovation and our education should all come on!

1. Judging from the current difficulties of Huawei, there are no important parts provided by China in the top lithography machines in the Netherlands.

Second, the lithography machine is more difficult to build than the atomic bomb. It is a collection of the world’s top technologies and is a comprehensive university.

1. ASML’s latest extreme ultraviolet EUV lithography machine, only ASML in the world can produce

The Dutch company ASML is a well-deserved leader in the field of lithography machines. The latest extreme ultraviolet EUV lithography machine can produce 7-nanometer CPUs. This is the only company in the world without a semicolon and has a market share of 100%.

Now the world’s mainstream processors are beginning to enter the 7-nanometer ranks. If you want to produce 7-nanometer chips, you must have ASML’s EUV lithography machine.

Since it is completely monopolized, ASML has the final say on the price, and the price is not expensive for a unit of 100 million US dollars.

But if you buy it with 100 million US dollars, it depends on ASLM’s face. I am not happy that I will not sell it to you! Is China Short of Money? In 2018, we bought 120 million US dollars (that is, the money for a few houses in Beijing’s second ring road). Two years later, Mao didn’t see it, and Taiwan has already won more than a dozen units.

Second, the top lithography machine is more difficult to build than “two bombs and one star”, and it is a gathering of the world’s top technologies

It is not unreasonable that the lithography machine is known as the “jewel in the crown of human industry”.

Some people describe the lithography machine like this: it is a product that integrates top technologies in the fields of mathematics, optics, fluid mechanics, polymer physics and chemistry, surface physics and chemistry, precision instruments, machinery, automation, software, and image recognition.

There are 10w parts on the most advanced lithography machine, (a car is about 5000 parts).

Therefore, the manufacture of cutting-edge lithography machines is not as simple as you think. This is not something that one country can do. The Netherlands can’t, and the United States can’t!

On a cutting-edge lithography machine, you will see the world’s top technologies: Germany provides Zeiss lens technology equipment, Japan provides special composite materials, Sweden’s industrial precision machine tool technology, the United States provides control software, power supply, etc. , No country has all the top-notch technologies required by lithography machines.

Every country in the world cannot rely on its own to manufacture advanced lithography machines. The current high-end lithography machines are the result of the joint cooperation of many countries. Unfortunately, China is not in this group. From this perspective, the lithography machine is really harder than two bombs and one star.

3. It is useless to shout slogans to be patriotic. What we really lack is talents and technology.

It is a lot of empty talk that cannot solve real practical problems by shouting patriotism and nationalism. The chip design software is from the UK, and the lithography machine is from the Netherlands. These are basically not available in China. This is the gap in technological strength and the gap in industrial foundation!

The lithography machine integrates more than 100,000 parts, many of which are top technologies in the world, and each of them is a technology monopolized by foreign countries. This is not the exclusive technology of the Netherlands, but it was jointly developed by several countries including the United States, Germany, Britain, Japan, and Switzerland, involving several major scientific fields.

If China is able to build it, it means that China’s science and technology are crushing the world in all aspects.

Today, even if we hire ASML technicians and experts to China, or even give us prototypes, disassemble them at will, give us design drawings, and give us tools, we still can’t make them. Power supplies from the United States, bearings from Sweden, or lenses from Germany. go with? Our foundation is too weak!

So from the above introduction, everyone should be clear about our current situation. A chef who knows some recipes, without good ingredients, no good cooking utensils, wants to make a good meal, it is too difficult.


If there are the most important parts provided by China, then SMIC will not even be able to buy a 7nm lithography machine, and Huawei will not face the “coreless usable” point.

The Dutch lithography machine has nearly 100,000 parts from dozens of countries around the world. The Netherlands can’t produce it by itself, and no one in the world can do it completely. Even if it is replaced by the United States, the United States lithography in the Netherlands. The parts on the fuselage actually account for less than 20% , and most of the rest are provided by Europe, Japan and South Korea, but whether there are Chinese elements in it, many people are wondering.

One thing is very clear, that is, there is no shadow of our domestic products on the core and important components . The light source is provided by Germany, the lens lens is also provided by Germany, the mobile workbench is provided by Germany, and the grating is provided by the United States. The servo system is provided by France. These are the most influential parts of the lithography machine. None of these come from the Netherlands. Although other things are also important, they cannot be as important as the above.

The more important parts are more difficult to replace. The only thing we can access is the light source. However, the light source of the lithography machine in Holland did not choose ours, but used the stable light source provided by Germany on the important parts. We don’t have parts involved in it. This is certain . Even if we are in some parts that cannot be replaced, it will not affect the overall situation.

The accessories of non-important parts can be replaced, so as long as they are not in the scope of the main accessories, even if some parts are used on the Dutch lithography machine , it is also possible that they can be replaced with other products without causing unusable effects, so the core Only technical components have the right to speak. Without core technology accessories, the right to speak is very low or even has no influence. It is basically useless to want to influence the Dutch lithography machine by not allowing the use of the parts we provide.

The most important, indispensable and irreplaceable thing is not provided by us, so we have no way to say anything. Some people think that the lithography machine data automation intelligent equipment uses a large number of electronic components, and the components of the electronic components are rare earths. We are rare earths. Large exporting countries, it is possible to control the lithography machine to prohibit the use of electronic components produced by our rare earths. This idea is very rare. Can it work?

In fact, it doesn’t work at all. It’s not just that we have rare earths. The United States produces 26,000 tons of rare earths every year, Thailand excavates 23,000 tons of rare earths every year, and some other countries also have a lot of rare earths. The output of rare earths accounts for more than half of the world, but it does not mean that they cannot produce electronic components without our rare earths . We have complete rare earth processing technology, but it is not the only one. The United States also has complete rare earth processing technology, so It is also difficult to use rare earths to interfere with the lithography machine. What we can do is to improve our core technology. Only by surpassing them will we have the right to speak and there is no other way.

Dutch ASML lithography machine.

As the world’s top semiconductor equipment manufacturer, ASML in the Netherlands integrates the top level of the global manufacturing industry, making ASML the world’s largest and top lithography machine equipment manufacturer, and the role of the lithography machine is like the brain to people Function, you want to build the most advanced processor without the most advanced lithography machine.

As the world’s three top foundries, TSMC, Samsung, and Intel are all consumers of ASML in the Netherlands. They have maintained a good cooperative relationship for a long time. Because of ASML’s customer service and shareholding mechanism, as long as ASML has advanced technology, it will provide TSMC, Samsung, Intel, etc. , have also made these foundries at the international leading level, especially TSMC. Today’s 5nm most mature process is also completed and put into mass production first, so TSMC also has a very high share in the world. Including Apple’s A-series processors and Qualcomm’s Snapdragon processors are all manufactured by TSMC. The domestic Huawei Kirin processors are also manufactured by TSMC. Huawei’s revenue to TSMC accounts for 16% of TSMC’s entire company’s revenue. Around the world, it has become the world’s second largest customer, and the rest of its revenue comes from the United States and other regions.

It can be said that the achievements of TSMC, Samsung and Intel today have the presence of the Dutch Asmer lithography machine behind them.

Accessories for Asimer Lithography Machine

According to incomplete statistics, as many as 100,000 parts are required for each lithography machine produced by Asim. Among these more than 100,000 parts, the most important of which is the extreme ultraviolet light source from the US company, and other key parts such as the lens. Provided by Zeiss in Germany , it can be said that these parts of Asim’s lithography machine are basically from all over the world, of which parts from the United States account for the largest proportion, as high as 25%.

This is why in 2018 my country’s SMIC spent 120 million US dollars to order a 7nm lithography machine from ASML in the Netherlands, but due to the influence of the United States, the equipment has not been delivered so far.

Although there is currently no disclosure about the supplier of more parts and components, it can be predicted that the parts produced in China can basically find substitutes. Otherwise, if the relationship between China and Asim breaks , it will not directly provide parts. Is it impossible for Asmer to create advanced lithography machines?

Therefore, on the whole, the top lithography machine produced by ASML in the Netherlands must have parts from China, but they are all replaceable! Among them, high-tech components from the United States and Europe account for the majority.


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